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April2013 Vol.50 Issue:        2        Table of Contents
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Memory and Attention Impairment after Traumatic Brain Injury

Aktham I. Alemam1, Haytham A. Mohamad2, Ayman A. Alhadad1

Departments of Neuropsychiatry1, Neurosurgery2; Minoufeya University; Egypt


Background: Deficits in memory and attention have been reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and there is evidence that the cholinergic system is frequently involved in these cognitive consequences. Objective: To study the effect of moderate to severe TBI on the cognitive functions facilitated by the cholinergic system.  Methods: The data of 25 patients with history of TBI on admission was reviewed including: Glasgow coma scale (GCS), Marshall Score, and the number of days of admission in ICU. During the follow up visit after 6 months of the trauma, all patients underwent neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). Neuropsychological assessment was done by using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results: The median GCS on admission was eight. The surviving population at 6 months consisted of two (8%) patients with GOS of 3, 10 (40%) with GOS of 4 and 13(52%) with GOS of 5. There was a significant difference between the groups on the MMSE score, although both groups were within the normal range.  Performance on the CANTAB showed that spatial span, spatial working memory and set shifting did not differ between the two groups. On the other hand, there was a significant difference on rapid visual information processing, pattern and spatial recognition, reaction time and paired associate learning. Conclusion: These cognitive results are consistent with cholinergic dysfunction. The cholinergic enhancers may be considered helpful in the treatment of cognitive deficits after TBI. [Egypt J Neurol Psychiat Neurosurg.  2013; 50(2): 143-148]


Key Words: Memory, Attention, Traumatic brain injury

Correspondence to Aktham I. Alemam, Department of Neurology, Minoufiya University, Egypt. Tel.: +201020108111   e-mail:

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